South Africa is very open to international trade, which represents 59.2% of the country’s GDP. The country mainly exports platinum (9.3%), motor vehicles (7.5%), iron ores (6.5%), coal and similar solid fuels (5.3%) and gold (5.2%).
Top Places to Visit In South Africa On Your Next Vacation
Kruger National Park
Kruger National Park is a South African National Park and one of the largest game reserves in Africa. It covers an area of 19,485 km² in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in northeastern South Africa, and extends 360 km from north to south and 65 km from east to west. The administrative headquarters are in Skukuza. Areas of the park were first protected by the government of the South African Republic in 1898, and it became South Africa’s first national park in 1926. To the west and south of the Kruger National Park are the two South African provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga, respectively. To the north is Zimbabwe, and to the east is Mozambique. It is now part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, a peace park that links Kruger National Park with the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, and with the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. The park is part of the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere, an area designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as an International Man and Biosphere Reserve. The park has nine main gates allowing entrance to the different camps.
Table Mountain is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the cableway or hiking to the top. The mountain forms part of the Table Mountain National Park, and part of the lands formerly ranged by Khoe-speaking clans, such as the!Uriǁʼaes. It is home to a large array of mostly endemic fauna and flora
Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. A common misconception is that the Cape of Good Hope is the southern tip of Africa. This misconception was based on the misbelief that the Cape was the dividing point between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Contemporary geographic knowledge, or looking at a map instead states the southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas about 150 kilometres to the east-southeast. The currents of the two oceans meet at the point where the warm-water Agulhas current meets the cold-water Benguela current and turns back on itself. That oceanic meeting point fluctuates between Cape Agulhas and Cape Point. When following the western side of the African coastline from the equator, however, the Cape of Good Hope marks the point where a ship begins to travel more eastward than southward. Thus, the first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish direct trade relations with the Far East. Dias called the cape Cabo das Tormentas, which was the original name of the “Cape of Good Hope”.
The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town is situated on the Atlantic shore, Table Bay Harbour, the City of Cape Town and Table Mountain. Adrian van der Vyver designed the complex. Situated in South Africa’s oldest working harbour, the 123 hectares area has been developed for mixed-use, with both residential and commercial real estate. The Waterfront attracts more than 23 million visitors a year.
Robben Island is an island in Table Bay, 6.9 kilometres west of the coast of Bloubergstrand, north of Cape Town, South Africa. It takes its name from the Dutch word for seals, hence the Dutch/Afrikaans name Robbeneiland, which translates to Seal Island. Robben Island is roughly oval in shape, 3.3 km long north-south, and 1.9 km wide, with an area of 5.08 km². It is flat and only a few metres above sea level, as a result of an ancient erosion event. It was fortified and used as a prison from the late 17th century to 1996, after the end of apartheid. Many of its prisoners were political. Political activist Nelson Mandela was imprisoned there for 18 of the 27 years he served behind bars before the fall of apartheid and expansion of the franchise to all residents of the country. He was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace and was elected in 1994 as President of South Africa, serving one term. In addition, two other former inmates of Robben Island have been elected as President of South Africa since the late 1990s: Kgalema Motlanthe and Jacob Zuma. Robben Island is a South African National Heritage Site as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Boulders Beach is a sheltered beach made up of inlets between granite boulders, from which the name originated. It is located on the Cape Peninsula, in Simon’s Town, a suburb of Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is also commonly known as Boulders Bay. It is a popular tourist spot because of a colony of African penguins which settled there in 1982. Boulders Beach forms part of the Table Mountain National Park. These African penguins are only found on the coastlines of Southern Africa -. These penguins are currently on the verge of extinction. As a result, the penguins are under the protection of the Cape Nature Conservation. Although set in the midst of a residential area, it is one of the few sites where this vulnerable bird can be observed at close range, wandering freely in a protected natural environment. From just two breeding pairs in 1982, the penguin colony has grown to about 3,000 birds in recent years.
Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden
Kirstenbosch is an important botanical garden nestled at the eastern foot of Table Mountain in Cape Town. The garden is one of ten National Botanical Gardens covering five of South Africa’s six different biomes and administered by the South African National Biodiversity Institute. Prior to 1 September 2004, the institute was known as the National Botanical Institute. Kirstenbosch places a strong emphasis on the cultivation of indigenous plants. When Kirstenbosch was founded in 1913 to preserve the flora native to the South Africa’s territory, it was the first botanical garden in the world with this ethos, at a time when invasive species were not considered an ecological and environmental problem. The garden includes a large conservatory exhibiting plants from a number of different regions, including savanna, fynbos, karoo and others. Outdoors, the focus is on plants native to the Cape region, highlighted by the spectacular collections of proteas. It is a level IV accredited Arboreta by the ArbNet Arboretum Accreditation Program and The Morton Arboretum.
Table Mountain National Park
Table Mountain National Park, previously known as the Cape Peninsula National Park, is a national park in Cape Town, South Africa, proclaimed on 29 May 1998, for the purpose of protecting the natural environment of the Table Mountain Chain, and in particular the rare fynbos vegetation. The park is managed by South African National Parks. The property is included as part of the UNESCO Cape Floral Region World Heritage Site. The park contains two well-known landmarks: Table Mountain, for which the park is named; and the Cape of Good Hope, the most southwestern extremity of Africa.
Cape Point is a promontory at the southeast corner of the Cape Peninsula, a mountainous and scenic landform that runs north-south for about thirty kilometres at the extreme southwestern tip of the African continent in the South Africa. Table Mountain and the city of Cape Town are close to the northern extremity of the same peninsula. The cape is located at 34°21′26″S 18°29′51″E, about 2.3 kilometres east and a little north of the Cape of Good Hope on the southwest corner. Although these two rocky capes are very well known, neither cape is actually the southernmost point of the mainland of Africa; that is Cape Agulhas, approximately 150 kilometres to the east-southeast.
Sun City Resort
Sun City is a luxury resort and casino, situated in the North West Province of South Africa. It is located between the Elands River and the Pilanesberg, about 140 km northwest of Johannesburg, near the city of Rustenburg. The complex borders the Pilanesberg Game Reserve. It is made up of a number of themed subresorts with hotels on each, including the original Sun City Resort, The Cabanas, The Cascades and the Lost City.
Addo Elephant National Park
Addo Elephant National Park is a diverse wildlife conservation park situated close to Port Elizabeth in South Africa and is one of the country’s 20 national parks. It currently ranks third in size after Kruger National Park and the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
Tsitsikamma National Park
The Tsitsikamma National Park is a protected area on the Garden Route, Western Cape and Eastern Cape, South Africa. It is a coastal reserve well known for its indigenous forests, dramatic coastline, and the Otter Trail. On 6 March 2009 it was amalgamated with the Wilderness National Park and various other areas of land to form the Garden Route National Park. The park covers an 80 kilometres long stretch of coastline. Nature’s Valley is at the western end of the park, and the main accommodation is at Storms River Mouth. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge, the world’s highest bridge bungee jump at 216 metres. The word “Tsitsikamma” hails from the Khoekhoe language tse-tsesa, meaning “clear”, and gami, meaning “water”, probably referring to the clear water of the Tsitsikamma River. Other meanings are ‘place of much water’ and ‘waters begin’.
Blyde River Canyon
The Blyde River Canyon is a 26km long Canyon located in Mpumalanga, South Africa. It is the third-largest canyon on Earth, behind the Grand Canyon and the Fish River Canyon. Unlike the Grand and Fish River Canyon, the Blyde River Canyon is a “green canyon” which is dominated by subtropical vegetation. The Blyde River Canyon passes a rock formation known as the “Three Rondavels”. So named as the formation resembles three African-style houses or rondavels. This canyon is part of the Panorama Route. This route starts at the town Graskop and includes God’s Window, the Pinnacle and Bourke’s Luck Potholes
Lion’s Head is a mountain in Cape Town, South Africa, between Table Mountain and Signal Hill. Lion’s Head peaks at 669 metres above sea level. The peak forms part of a dramatic backdrop to the city of Cape Town and is part of the Table Mountain National Park.
Iziko Bo-Kaap Museum
The Bo-Kaap is an area of Cape Town, South Africa formerly known as the Malay Quarter. It is a former racially segregated area, situated on the slopes of Signal Hill above the city centre and is a historical centre of Cape Malay culture in Cape Town. The Nurul Islam Mosque, established in 1844, is located in the area. Bo-Kaap is known for its brightly coloured homes and cobble stoned streets. The area is traditionally a multicultural neighbourhood, and 56.9% of its population identify as Muslim. According to the South African Heritage Resources Agency, the area contains the largest concentration of pre-1850 architecture in South Africa, and is the oldest surviving residential neighborhood in Cape Town.
The Apartheid Museum is a museum in Johannesburg, South Africa illustrating apartheid and the 20th century history of South Africa. The museum, part of the Gold Reef City complex, was opened in November 2001. At least five times a year events are held at the museum to celebrate the end of apartheid and the start of multiracial democracy for the people of South Africa.
Chapman’s Peak is the name of a mountain on the western side of the Cape Peninsula, between Hout Bay and Noordhoek in Cape Town, South Africa. The western flank of the mountain falls sharply for hundreds of metres into the Atlantic Ocean, and a road, known as Chapman’s Peak Drive, hugs the near-vertical face of the mountain, linking Hout Bay to Noordhoek. Tourists and locals often stop at viewpoints along this road, which offer views of Hout Bay, The Sentinel Peak and surrounds, as well as over Noordhoek Beach. Chapman’s Peak Drive is part of the route of two of South Africa’s biggest mass-participation races, the Cape Argus Cycle Race and the Two Oceans Marathon.
God’s Window – Blyde River Canyon
Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve is situated in the Drakensberg escarpment region of eastern Mpumalanga, South Africa. The reserve protects the Blyde River Canyon, including sections of the Ohrigstad and Blyde Rivers and the geological formations around Bourke’s Luck Potholes, where the Treur River tumbles into the Blyde below. Southwards of the canyon, the reserve follows the escarpment, to include the Devil’s and God’s Window, the latter a popular viewpoint to the lowveld at the reserve’s southern extremity. The Mogologolo, Mariepskop and Hebronberg massifs are partially included in the reserve. Elevation varies from 560 m to 1,944 m above sea level. Its resort areas are F.H. Odendaal and Swadeni, the latter only accessible from Limpopo province. The area of approximately 29,000 hectares is administered by the Mpumalanga Parks Board.
The Cango Caves are located in Precambrian limestones at the foothills of the Swartberg range near the town of Oudtshoorn, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The principal cave is one of the country’s finest, best known, and most popular tourist caves and attracts many visitors from overseas. Although the extensive system of tunnels and chambers go on for over 4 km, only about a quarter of this is open to visitors, who may proceed into the cave only in groups supervised by a guide.
Cradle of Humankind
The paleoanthropological site self-proclaimed as the Cradle of Humankind is located about 50 km northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province. Declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1999, the site currently occupies 47,000 hectares and contains a complex of limestone caves. The registered name of the site in the list of World Heritage sites is Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa. According to existing archaeological and fossil evidence, however, the Cradle of Humankind is the Afar Triangle in East Africa, which is often referred to as the Cradle of Humanity. The Sterkfontein Caves were the site of the discovery of a 2.3-million-year-old fossil Australopithecus africanus, found in 1947 by Robert Broom and John T. Robinson. The find helped corroborate the 1924 discovery of the juvenile Australopithecus africanus skull known as the “Taung Child”, by Raymond Dart, at Taung in the North West Province of South Africa, where excavations still continue. Nearby, but not in the site, the Rising Star Cave system contains the Dinaledi Chamber, in which were discovered fifteen fossil skeletons of an extinct species of hominin, provisionally named Homo naledi.
Pilanesberg National Park
The Pilanesberg Game Reserve is located north of Rustenburg in North West Province in South Africa. The park borders on the Sun City entertainment complex. It is currently administered by the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The area is defined by alternating ridges and valleys forming concentric rings, a geological formation that rises abruptly from the surrounding plains. The Pilanesberg is named for chief Pilane of the Kgafêla people, who ruled from Bogopane, Mmamodimokwana and eventually Mmasebudule during the 1800s. The ‘Pilanesberg Alkaline Ring Complex’ is the park’s primary geological feature. This vast circular feature is geologically ancient, being the crater of a long-extinct volcano – the result of eruptions some 1,200 million years ago. It is one of the largest volcanic complexes of its type in the world, the rare rock types and formations make it a unique geological feature, and a number of rare minerals occur in the park. Scattered throughout the park are various sites that are assigned to the Iron and Stone Ages and illustrate the presence of man during those early periods.
West Coast National Park
The West Coast National Park lies 120 km north of Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is 36,259.8 hectares in size. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west and the R27 coastal road, and runs from the town of Yzerfontein in the south up to the Langebaan Lagoon. The park was proclaimed in 1985. The park is particularly well known for its bird life and for the spring flowers which occur in the months from August to September, especially in the Postberg flower reserve section of the park. The park, with the islands in Saldanha Bay, has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area.
Two Oceans Aquarium
The Two Oceans Aquarium is an aquarium located at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa. The aquarium was opened on the 13 November 1995 and comprises several exhibition galleries with large viewing windows: The aquarium is named for its location, where the Indian and Atlantic Ocean meet. Skretting Diversity Gallery – This gallery showcases marine life of South Africa’s two oceans, and the major Benguela and Agulhas Currents that dominate its shores. Notable species include Knysna seahorses, moray eels, anemonefish, cryptic klipfish, sea stars, compass jellyfish, shysharks and temporary exhibitions of foreign species, such as Japanese spider crabs and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. I&J Children’s Play Centre – Various activities to keep the young visitors entertained. Puppet shows, arts and craft. Predator Exhibit – This exhibit holds 2 million litres of seawater. Ragged-tooth sharks as well as various other fishes are found in the exhibit. I&J Ocean Exhibit – This exhibit holds 1.6 million litres of seawater. Various fishes, rays and turtles to be seen in this exhibit.
uShaka Marine World
uShaka Marine World is a 16-hectare theme park which was opened on 30 April 2004 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It comprises 8 sections: uShaka Sea World, uShaka Wet ‘n Wild, uShaka Sea Animal Encounters Island, uShaka Beach, uShaka Village Walk, uShaka Kids World, uShaka Dangerous Creatures and Chimp & Zee. It is located on the strip of land between the beachfront and the harbour. It was the first phase in the redevelopment of the Durban Point.
iSimangaliso Wetland Park
iSimangaliso Wetland Park is situated on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 235 kilometres north of Durban by road. It is South Africa’s third-largest protected area, spanning 280 km of coastline, from the Mozambican border in the north to Mapelane south of the Lake St. Lucia estuary, and made up of around 3,280 km² of natural ecosystems, managed by the iSimangaliso Authority. The park includes: Lake St. Lucia St. Lucia Game Reserve False Bay Park Kosi Bay Lake Eteza Nature Reserve Lake Sibhayi St. Lucia Marine Reserve St. Lucia Marine Sanctuary Sodwana Bay National Park Mapelane Nature Reserve Maputaland Marine Protected Area Cape Vidal Ozabeni Mfabeni Tewate Wilderness Area Mkuze Game Reserve The park was previously known as the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, but was renamed effective 1 November 2007. The word isimangaliso means “a miracle” or “something wondrous” in Zulu. The name came as a result of Shaka’s subject having been sent to the land of the Tsonga. When he came back he described the beauty that he saw as a miracle.
Castle of Good Hope
The Castle of Good Hope known locally as the Castle or Cape Town Castle is a bastion fort built in the 17th century in Cape Town, South Africa. Originally located on the coastline of Table Bay, following land reclamation the fort is now located inland. In 1936 the Castle was declared a historical monument and following restorations in the 1980s it is considered the best preserved example of a Dutch East India Company fort.
The Nelson Mandela National Museum, commonly referred to as Mandela House, is the house on Vilakazi Street, Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa, where Nelson Mandela lived from 1946 to 1962. It is located at number 8115, at the corner of Vilakazi and Ngakane streets, a short distance up the road from Tutu House, the home of Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu. Mandela donated the house to the Soweto Heritage Trust on 1 September 1997, to be run as a museum. It was declared a National Heritage Site in 1999.
Gold Reef City Theme Park
Gold Reef City is an amusement park in Johannesburg, South Africa. Located on an old gold mine which closed in 1971, the park is themed around the gold rush that started in 1886 on the Witwatersrand, the buildings on the park are designed to mimic the same period. There is a museum dedicated to gold mining on the grounds where it is possible to see a gold-containing ore vein and see how gold is poured into barrels. And multiple shops around the park can be located. There are many attractions at Gold Reef City, including water rides, roller coasters and the famous Gold Reef City Casino. Gold Reef City is located to the south of the Central Business District off of the M1. It is also the site of the Apartheid Museum.
Hluhluwe–Imfolozi Park, formerly Hluhluwe–Umfolozi Game Reserve, is the oldest proclaimed nature reserve in Africa. It consists of 960 km² of hilly topography 280 kilometres north of Durban in central KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and is known for its rich wildlife and conservation efforts. The park is the only state-run park in KwaZulu-Natal where each of the big five game animals can be found. Due to conservation efforts, the park in 2008 had the largest population of white rhinoceros in the world.
Signal Hill, or Lion’s Rump, is a landmark flat-topped hill located in Cape Town, next to Lion’s Head and Table Mountain. The hill was also known as “The Lion’s Flank”, a term now obsolete. Together with Lion’s Head, Signal Hill looks like a lion sphinx
Lion & Safari Park
Lion & Safari Park is a conservation enclosure for lions, cheetahs, hyena, wild dogs and various antelope. It is located in the Cradle of Humankind in the North West province of South Africa.
Sani Pass is a mountain pass located in the West of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa on the road between Underberg, KwaZulu-Natal and Mokhotlong, Lesotho.
The Company’s Garden Restaurant
The Company’s Garden is the oldest garden in South Africa, a park and heritage site located in central Cape Town. The garden was originally created in the 1650s by the region’s first European settlers and provided fertile ground to grow fresh produce to replenish ships rounding the Cape. It is watered from the Molteno Dam, which uses water from the springs on the lower slopes of Table Mountain.
The Pilanesberg is a mountain in the North West Province, South Africa. The mountain is an ancient volcanic structure, circular in shape, that rises from flat surrounding plains. It is formed by three concentric ridges or rings of hills, of which the outermost has a diameter of about 24 km. The Pilanesberg is located 100 km to the North-West of Pretoria and is for the greater part enclosed in a protected area known as Pilanesberg Game Reserve. The Elands River flows South of the Pilanesberg in an Easterly direction. There are a number of platinum mines right at the perimeter of the crater formation. The name “Pilanes” comes from a historic Tswana chief named Pilane.
District Six Museum
District Six Museum is a museum in the former inner-city residential area and, District Six, in Cape Town, South Africa in an old Methodist church. District Six Foundation was founded in 1989 and the museum in 1994, as a memorial to the forced movement of 60,000 inhabitants of various races in District Six during Apartheid in South Africa in the 1970s. The floor of the museum is covered with a big map of the district with hand written notes of former inhabitants, which indicate where their houses were located. One former resident is jazz musician, Abdullah Ibrahim, better known by the name Dollar Brand. Other pieces in the museum are old traffic signs, exhibits of historical moments and lives of families from the area, historical declarations, and exhibits about the demolition. Furthermore, the museum offers programmes for current inhabitants to help develop the district. The museum is dedicated to the construction of housing, environmental planning, and the organisation of music, literature, and art activities, with the active involvement of the public.
Golden Gate Highlands National Park
Golden Gate Highlands National Park is located in Free State, South Africa, near the Lesotho border. It covers an area of 340 km². The park’s most notable features are its golden, ochre, and orange-hued, deeply eroded sandstone cliffs and outcrops, especially the Brandwag rock. Another feature of the area is the numerous caves and shelters displaying San rock paintings. Wildlife featured at the park includes mongooses, eland, zebras, and over 100 bird species. It is the Free State’s only national park, and is more famous for the beauty of its landscape than for its wildlife. Numerous paleontology finds have been made in the park, including dinosaur eggs and skeletons.
Groot Constantia is the oldest wine estate in South Africa and provincial heritage site in the suburb of Constantia in Cape Town, South Africa. “Groot” in Dutch and Afrikaans translates as “great” in English.
Camps Bay Beach
Groot Constantia is the oldest wine estate in South Africa and provincial heritage site in the suburb of Constantia in Cape Town, South Africa. “Groot” in Dutch and Afrikaans translates as “great” in English.
The Voortrekker Monument is located just south of Pretoria in South Africa. This massive granite structure is prominently located on a hilltop, and was raised to commemorate the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854. On 8 July 2011 the Voortrekker Monument, designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk, was declared a National Heritage Site by the South African Heritage Resource Agency.
Babylonstoren is a farm hotel located in South Africa.
The uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park is a protected area in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, covering 2,428.13 km², and is part of a world heritage site. The park includes Royal Natal National Park, a provincial park, and covers part of the Drakensberg, an escarpment formation with the highest elevations in southern Africa. The park and the adjoining Sehlabathebe National Park in the Kingdom of Lesotho are part of the Maloti-Drakensberg Park, which was first declared a World Heritage Site on 30 November 2000. It is described by UNESCO as having “exceptional natural beauty in its soaring basaltic buttresses, incisive dramatic cutbacks, and golden sandstone ramparts… the site’s diversity of habitats protects a high level of endemic and globally threatened species, especially birds and plants… [and it] also contains many caves and rock-shelters with the largest and most concentrated group of paintings in Africa south of the Sahara”. The paintings mentioned are parietal art, some of which may date to 40,000 or 100,000 years ago.
Garden Route National Park
The Garden Route National Park is a national park in the Garden Route region of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces in South Africa. It is a coastal reserve well known for its indigenous forests, dramatic coastline, and the Otter Trail. It was established on 6 March 2009 by amalgamating the existing Tsitsikamma and Wilderness National Parks, the Knysna National Lake Area, and various other areas of state-owned land. The park covers about 1,210 km² of land; of this, about 685 km² was already part of the predecessor national parks. The park includes a continuous complex of approximately 605 km² of indigenous forest. The Garden Route National Park has a pleasant, temperate climate; it is unique in Africa as the only area in which rainfall occurs throughout the year.
Madikwe Game Reserve
The Madikwe Game Reserve is a protected area in South Africa, part of the latest park developments in the country. Named after the Madikwe or Marico River, on whose basin it is located, it was opened in 1991 and comprises 750 km² of bushland north of the small town Groot-Marico up to the Botswana border.
Bourke’s Luck Potholes
Rock formations with scenic views
The Bloukrans Bridge is an arch bridge located near Nature’s Valley, Western Cape, South Africa. Constructed by Concor between February 1980 and June 1983, the bridge stands at a height of 216m above the Bloukrans River. Its central span is 272m and the bridge is 451m in length in total. Its primary use is that of a road bridge, carrying national route N2. Bloukrans Bridge is the site of the world’s highest commercial bridge bungee jumping, Bloukrans Bridge Bungy, operated by Face Adrenalin since 1997. The Bloukrans River below forms the border between the Eastern Cape and Western Cape provinces and is located in the Tsitsikamma region of the Garden Route
Augrabies Falls National Park
Augrabies Falls National Park is a national park located around the Augrabies Falls, about 120 km west of Upington in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. It was established in 1966. The Augrabies Falls National Park covers an area of 820 km² and stretches along the Orange River. The area is very arid. The waterfall is about 60 metres high and is awe-inspiring when the river is in flood. The gorge below the falls averages about 240 m deep and runs for 18 kilometres. The gorge provides an impressive example of erosion into a granitic basement.
Karoo National Park
The Karoo National Park, founded in 1979, is a wildlife reserve in the Great Karoo area of the Western Cape, South Africa near Beaufort West. This semi-desert area covers an area of 750 square kilometres. The Nuweveld portion of the Great Escarpment runs through the Park. It is therefore partly in the Lower Karoo, at about 850 m above sea level, and partly in the Upper Karoo at over 1300 m altitude.
The Union Buildings form the official seat of the South African Government and also house the offices of the President of South Africa. The imposing buildings are located in Pretoria, atop Meintjieskop at the northern end of Arcadia, close to historic Church Square and the Voortrekker Monument. The large gardens of the Buildings are nestled between Government Avenue, Vermeulen Street East, Church Street, the R104 and Blackwood Street. Fairview Avenue is a closed road where only officials can enter to the Union Buildings. Though not in the centre of Pretoria, the Union Buildings occupy the highest point of Pretoria, and constitute a South African national heritage site. The Buildings are one of the centres of political life in South Africa; “The Buildings” and “Arcadia” have become metonyms for the South African government. It has become an iconic landmark of Pretoria and South Africa in general, and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city and an emblem of democracy. The Buildings are the location of presidential inaugurations
Constitution Hill Human Rights Precinct
The Constitution Hill precinct is located at 11 Kotze Street in Braamfontein, Johannesburg near the western end of the suburb of Hillbrow. Constitution Hill is the seat of the Constitutional Court of South Africa.
Sterkfontein is a set of limestone caves of special interest to paleo-anthropologists located in Gauteng province, about 40 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Muldersdrift area close to the town of Krugersdorp. The archaeological sites of Swartkrans and Kromdraai are in the same area. Sterkfontein is a South African National Heritage Site and was also declared a World Heritage Site in 2000. The area in which it is situated is known as the Cradle of Humankind. The Sterkfontein Caves are also home to numerous wild African species including Belonogaster petiolata, a wasp species of which there is a large nesting presence. Numerous early hominin remains have been found at the site over the last few decades. These have been attributed to Australopithecus, early Homo and Paranthropus.
Iziko South African Museum
The Iziko South African Museum is a South African national museum located in Cape Town. The museum was founded in 1825, the first in the country. It has been on its present site in the Company’s Garden since 1897. The museum houses important African zoology, palaeontology and archaeology collections. Iziko is a Xhosa word meaning “hearth”
andBeyond Phinda Private Game Reserve
Phinda Private Game Reserve, formerly known as Phinda Resource Reserve, is a 170 km² private game reserve situated in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between the Mkuze Game Reserve and the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park. Formed in 1991, the name “Phinda” is a Zulu word meaning to ‘return’ or more accurately ‘repeat’. Phinda has seven distinct ecosystems with palm savannah and mountain bush to rare sand forest and dense thornveld. As of May 2020, South African company WildEarth have broadcast drives from Phinda in collaboration with &Beyond.
Table Mountain Aerial Cableway
Circular cable cars providing 360° views
Moses Mabhida Stadium
The Moses Mabhida Stadium is a football stadium in Durban in the KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa, named after Moses Mabhida, a former General Secretary of the South African Communist Party. It is a multi-use stadium. The stadium became a venue for several events, like bungee jumping, concerts, cricket, football, golf practice, motorsports and rugby union. It was one of the host stadiums for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The stadium has a capacity of 55,500. The stadium is adjacent to the Kings Park Stadium, in the Kings Park Sporting Precinct, and the Durban street circuit used for the A1GP World Cup of Motorsport. It includes a sports institute, and a transmodal transport station.
The Big Hole
The Kimberley Mine or Tim Kuilmine is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the deepest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed.
Hector Pieterson Memorial
The Hector Pieterson Museum is a large museum located in Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa, two blocks away from where Hector Pieterson was shot and killed 16 June 1976. The museum is named in his honour, and covers the events of the anti-Apartheid Soweto Uprising, where more than 170 protesting school children were killed. The museum features films, newspapers, personal accounts and photographs, the most famous being the iconic photo by Sam Nzima. The Hector Pieterson Museum became one of the first museums in Soweto when it opened on 16 June 2002. A companion museum nearby is Mandela House, the former home of Nelson Mandela and his family, which has been run as a museum since 1997. The total cost of the Hector Pieterson Museum project was Rand 23.2 million, which was covered by a 16 million rand donation by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and 7.2 million rand donation from the Johannesburg City Council.
The Swartberg Pass on the R328 run over the Swartberg mountain range which runs roughly east–west along the northern edge of the semi-arid area called the Little Karoo in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It’s to only road access to Gamkaskloof.
Bontebok National Park
Bontebok National Park is a species-specific national park in South Africa. It was established in 1931 to ensure the preservation of the Bontebok. It is the smallest of South Africa’s 18 National Parks, covering an area of 27.86 km² The park is part of the Cape Floristic Region, which is a World Heritage Site. The park is located 6 km south of Swellendam, in the foothills of the Langeberg Mountains. It is bordered to the south by the Breede River.
Jonkershoek Nature Reserve
Jonkershoek Nature Reserve is a CapeNature nature reserve located approximately 10 km south-east of the town of Stellenbosch in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It covers an area of approximately 11,000 hectares.
Devil’s Peak is part of the mountainous backdrop to Cape Town, South Africa. When looking at Table Mountain from the city centre, or when looking at the standard picture postcard view of the mountain, the skyline is from left to right: the spire of Devil’s Peak, the flat mesa of Table Mountain, the dome of Lion’s Head and Signal Hill. The central districts of Cape Town are nestled within this natural amphitheatre. The city grew out of a settlement founded on the shore below the mountains in 1652 by Jan van Riebeeck, for the Dutch East India Company. Some of the first farms in the Cape were established on the slopes of Devil’s Peak, along the Liesbeek River. Devil’s Peak stands 1,000 metres high, less than Table Mountain’s 1,087 metres. One can walk to the top but the ascent is more pleasant and safer outside of the cold, wet, winter months of May to August.
Timbavati Game Reserve
The Timbavati Game Reserve is located at the border line between Hoedspruit and Acornhoek, north of the Sabi Sand Private Game Reserve on the western edge of Kruger National Park. Geographically and politically, Timbavati is located in Mpumalanga Province. In Xitsonga, the name ‘Timbavati’ means “the place where something sacred came down to Earth from the Heavens”, and refers to the rare white lions of Timbavati. The reserve was established in 1956 by like-minded game farmers with the creation of the Timbavati Association. The association has 50 members and covers 53,392 hectares. Timbavati is part of Associated Private Nature Reserves and the fences separating Timbavati from the other member reserves in the APNR and from the Kruger National Park has been removed. Wildlife, including lions, cheetahs, elephants and other species, roam freely between these reserves. Ngala and Motswari game reserves have been amalgamated into Timbavati.
Tugela Falls is a complex of seasonal waterfalls located in the Drakensberg of Royal Natal National Park in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. It is generally accepted as the world’s second-tallest waterfall but there is an argument that it is actually the tallest waterfall in the world, rather than Venezuela’s Angel Falls. The combined total drop of its five distinct free-leaping falls is officially 948 m. In 2016, however, a Czech scientific expedition took new measurements, making the falls 983 m tall. The data were sent to the World Waterfall Database for confirmation. The source of the Tugela River is the Mont-Aux-Sources plateau which extends several kilometers beyond The Amphitheatre escarpment from which the falls drop.
Sabi Sands Game Reserve
Sabi Sand Game Reserve is located adjacent to the Kruger National Park in the Lowveld of Mpumalanga, South Africa. Officially named Sabi Sand Wildtuin, the Sabi Sand Game Reserve consists of a group of private game reserves. The Newington Gate is at 24°52′9″S 31°24′16″E and west of the Kruger Gate and Skukuza camp of Kruger Park. Other entrances are Gowrie Gate in the far north and Shaws Gate in the south. The park’s name comes from the Sabie River on its southern boundary and the Sand River flowing through it. The area of the reserve is 62,308 hectares and it shares a non-fenced boundary of 50 km with the Kruger National Park to its east. Reserves in Sabi Sands include Buffelshoek, Djuma, Elephant Plains, Cheetah Plains, Chitwa Chitwa, Nkorho, Simbambilli, Arathusa, Londolozi, Umkumbe, Nottens, Sabi Sabi, Lion Sands, Kirkman’s Kamp, Singita, Exeter Leadwood, Inyati, Idube, Dulini, Leopard Hills, Savanna and Ulusaba.
Dinokeng Game Reserve
The Dinokeng Game Reserve is a large wildlife sanctuary in the province of Gauteng, South Africa, contiguous with Pretoria and Johannesburg. The reserve is the only wildlife sanctuary in Gauteng that offers Big five game free walks and is available for visitors to explore. It covers an area of approximately 21,000 hectares. Dinokeng is the language of the baTswana people, translated as “a river place” and the reserve is named for the many rivers that flow through it on their way to joining the Limpopo and Orange rivers.
Hartbeespoort Dam is an arch type dam situated in the North West Province of South Africa. It lies in a valley to the south of the Magaliesberg mountain range and north of the Witwatersberg mountain range, about 35 kilometres north west of Johannesburg and 20 kilometres west of Pretoria. The name of the dam means “gorge of the hartebeest” in Afrikaans. This “poort” in the Magaliesberg was a popular spot for hunters, where they cornered and shot the hartebeest. The dam was originally designed for irrigation, which is currently its primary use, as well as for domestic and industrial use. The dam has suffered from a hypertrophic state since the early 1970s. Mismanagement of waste water treatment from urban zones within the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment area is largely to blame, having distorted the food web with over 280 tons of phosphate and nitrate deposits. The town of Hartbeespoort is situated close to the dam wall and the villages of Kosmos, Melodie, Ifafi, Meerhof and The Coves, Pecanwood, Westlake and several other estates can be found alongside its shores. The town of Schoemansville was named after General Hendrik Schoeman, owner of the land during the 19th century.
Mac Mac Falls
The Mac-Mac Falls is a waterfall on the Mac-Mac River in Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Hottentots Holland Mountains
The Hottentots Holland Mountains are part of the Cape Fold Belt in the Western Cape, South Africa. The mountain range forms a barrier between the Cape Town metropolitan area and the southern Overberg coast. The range is primarily composed of Table Mountain Sandstone, and forms a large range between the Cape Town outlying suburbs of Somerset West and Gordon’s Bay to the west, and the large Elgin valley to the east. Sir Lowry’s Pass is the only crossing, in the form of the N2 motorway. The Steenbras Dam, one of Cape Town’s main supply dams, is located in the southern section of the range. This is due to the abundant rainfall experienced in the uplands, located in the Elgin Valley around the town of Grabouw on the eastern slopes. At the start of the Great Trek in 1835 when migrants decided to leave the Cape Town area, or Cape Colony as it was then known, this was the first mountain range they crossed. Cuts and wheel markings from their ox wagons can still be seen in rock formations in the vicinity of Sir Lowry’s Pass. This route still serves as the primary route out of the Cape Town area for travellers heading up the east coast of South Africa.
De Hoop Nature Reserve
De Hoop Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. It lies three hours from Cape Town in the Overberg region, near Cape Agulhas, the southern tip of Africa. Approximately 340 square kilometres in area, it is one of the largest natural areas managed by CapeNature. De Hoop is one of the components of the “Cape Floral Region Protected Areas” World Heritage Site. The De Hoop Marine Protected Area extends three nautical miles out to sea from the coastline of the nature reserve.
The Magaliesberg of northern South Africa, is a modest but well-defined mountain range composed mainly of quartzites. It rises at a point south of the Pilanesberg to form a curved prominence that intersects suburban Pretoria before it peters out some 50 km to the east, just south of Bronkhorstspruit. The highest point of the Magaliesberg is reached at Nooitgedacht, about 1,852 metres above sea level. A cableway reaching to the top of the mountain range is located at Hartbeespoort Dam, providing sweeping views of the Magaliesberg and surrounding area.
The Augrabies Falls is a waterfall on the Orange River, the largest river in South Africa. Since 1966 the waterfall, set in a desolate and rugged milieu, is enclosed by the Augrabies Falls National Park. The falls are around 183 feet in height. Some sources cite an approximate height of 480 feet; this is actually the height from the base of the canyon to the top of the walls, not that of the falls themselves.
Highgate Ostrich Show Farm
The Highgate Ostrich Show Farm is an ostrich farm located 10 kilometres south of Oudtshoorn in the Western Cape, South Africa. This large farm specializes in the breeding of ostriches and is open to visitors providing specialized information about the various stages of the birds development, provided with the opportunity to visit young offspring and an ostrich pen. Whilst it mainly focuses on the development of the ostrich, tourism is an important source of income and keeps the farm running. Other ostrich farms in the area include Safari Show Farm.
Montecasino, popularly shortened to Monte, is a leisure and casino complex in Fourways, Sandton in Gauteng, South Africa. It was designed by American company Creative Kingdom Inc. and built by South African architects Bentel Associates International at a cost of R1.6 billion. It first opened its doors on 30 November 2000 and it currently attracts over 9.3 million visitors annually. It is themed after Monte Cassino. It has been designed to replicate an ancient Tuscan village. The main casino building has a fake sky, painted on the ceiling, inside going from light on one side to dark at the other. Montecasino is owned by Tsogo Sun. Tsogo Sun is a partnership between Southern Sun and Tsogo Investments. Tsogo Investments is a black empowerment group and the hotel component of Tsogo Sun’s casinos are developed and managed by Southern Sun. Tsogo Sun holds the casino license for Montecasino.
The Vredefort crater is the largest verified impact crater on Earth. More than 300 kilometres across when it was formed, what remains of it is in the present-day Free State province of South Africa. It is named after the town of Vredefort, which is near its centre. Although the crater itself has long since been eroded away, the remaining geological structures at its centre are known as the Vredefort Dome or Vredefort impact structure. The crater is calculated to be 2.023 billion years old, with impact being in the Paleoproterozoic Era. It is the second-oldest known crater on Earth. In 2005, the Vredefort Dome was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites for its geologic interest.
Walker Bay is a large bay located in the south-western Western Cape province of South Africa. It is the next major bay between False Bay near Cape Town and Cape Agulhas to the south-east. The bay is famous for having some of the best land based whale-watching in the world, which a town on its shores, Hermanus, has become famous for. Southern right whales visit the bay in the winter and spring months. Gansbaai on the shores of the bay has also become very famous for Great white shark diving. The shores adjacent to the bay are protected as part of the Walker Bay Nature Reserve, and the bay itself is a marine protected area in which most boating and fishing activity is prohibited.
Durban Botanic Gardens
The Durban Botanic Gardens is situated in the city of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is Durban’s oldest public institution and Africa’s oldest surviving botanical gardens. The gardens cover an area of 15 hectares in a subtropical climate.
Chapmans Peak Drive
Iconic coastal route with scenic views
Agulhas National Park
The Agulhas National Park is a South African national park located in the Agulhas Plain in the southern Overberg region of the Western Cape, about 200 kilometres south-east of Cape Town. The park stretches along the coastal plain between the towns of Gansbaai and Struisbaai, and includes the southern tip of Africa at Cape Agulhas. As of January 2009 it covered an area of 20,959 hectares. Although one of the smallest national parks in South Africa, it boasts 2,000 native plant species and a wetland that provides refuge to birds and amphibians.
Cederberg Wilderness Area
The Cederberg mountains are located near Clanwilliam, approximately 300 km north of Cape Town, South Africa at about 32°30′S 19°0′E. The mountain range is named after the endangered Clanwilliam cedar, which is a tree endemic to the area. The mountains are noted for dramatic rock formations and San rock art. The Cederberg Wilderness Area is administered by CapeNature. Cederberg is now the generally accepted spelling for the area, which combines the English and Afrikaans variants.
National Zoological Gardens of South Africa
The National Zoological Garden of South Africa is an 80-hectare zoo located in Pretoria, South Africa. It is the national zoo of South Africa, and was founded by J. W. B. Gunning in 1899. Pretoria Zoo is one of the eight largest zoos in the world and one of the most highly rated.
Mala Mala Game Reserve
Mala Mala is a game reserve located within the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. It is the largest and the oldest private big five game reserve in South Africa, It covers around 130 km² or 15 000 hectares of land. In Xitsonga, the name Malamala means Kudu, it was named so because of the abundance of these animals within the game reserve. The Tsonga people, who occupied the land before the establishment of the game reserve, were forcibly removed from this land during the early 1900s and were dumped at Bushbuckridge. The Nwandlamhlarhi Community successfully claimed Malamala game reserve and the land was restored to them in 2015 when President Jacob Zuma handed them their land in a Government ceremony. The Tsonga people were also forcibly removed from neighbouring game reserves such as Skukuza, Satara, Ulusaba, Manyeleti, Protea Hotel Kruger Gate, Hoyo Hoyo Tsonga Lodge and may more in Southern Kruger. The Tsonga people are still waiting to be given back these lands by the Government after the finalization of their land claim.
The Outeniqua Mountains, named after the Outeniqua Khoikhoi who lived there, is a mountain range that runs a parallel to the southern coast of South Africa, and forms a continuous range with the Langeberg to the west and the Tsitsikamma Mountains to the east. It was known as “Serra de Estrella” to the Portuguese. The mountains are part of the Garden Route of South Africa.
Royal Natal National Park
The 80.94 squarekilometer sized Royal Natal National Park is in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa and forms part of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site. Notwithstanding the name, it is actually not a South African National Park managed by the SANParks, but rather a Provincial Park managed by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife. This park is now included into the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation Area Peace Park. The Drakensberg Mountains were once the hunting ground of the San people. Though the San no longer live in the area, they recorded their exploits in the form of remarkable rock paintings. The main features of the park are the Drakensberg Amphitheatre, a rock wall 5 kilometres long by up to 1,200 metres high, Mont-Aux-Sources peak where the Orange and Tugela rivers have their source, and the 948-metre Tugela Falls, the world’s second-highest waterfall.
Table Bay is a natural bay on the Atlantic Ocean overlooked by Cape Town and is at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula, which stretches south to the Cape of Good Hope. It was named because it is dominated by the flat-topped Table Mountain.
Sabie Sand Game Reserve
Sabi Sabi is a private game reserve in South Africa, situated in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve which flanks the south western section of the Kruger National Park. The Sabi Sand Reserve is one of the parks that make up the Greater Kruger National Park. It is a conservation area where the big five game occur naturally.
Cango Wildlife Ranch
The Cango Wildlife Ranch is a wildlife ranch 3 kilometres north of the town of Oudtshoorn in South Africa. It was established in 1977 as a crocodile show farm.
The Carlton Centre is a 50 story skyscraper and shopping centre located in downtown Johannesburg, South Africa. At 223 metres, it is the second tallest building in Africa after The Leonardo and the tallest office building. The foundations of the two buildings in the complex are 5 m in diameter and extend 15 m down to the bedrock, 35 m below street level. The building houses both offices and shops, and has over 46 per cent of the floor area below ground level. The Carlton Centre is linked to the Carlton Hotel by a below-ground shopping centre with over 180 shops.
Boschendal is one of the oldest wine estates in South Africa and is located between Franschhoek and Stellenbosch in South Africa’s Western Cape.
Silvermine Nature Reserve forms part of the Table Mountain National Park in Cape Town, South Africa. It covers the section of the Cape Peninsula mountain range from the Kalk Bay mountains through to Constantiaberg. The area is a significant conservation area for the indigenous fynbos vegetation, which is of the montane cone-bush type at this location. The Ou Kaapse Weg main road runs through the reserve, cutting it into a northern and southern section. The Silvermine reservoir, on the north side, was built in 1898 to supply water to Cape Town. Until 2000, there were significant pine stands in the reserve, but the last of these were felled in following the major fire in that year. The area was again burnt in March 2015 and the reserve was closed for the rest of the year. The area is popular for walking, hiking, picnicking, and mountain biking. There are a number of sandstone cave systems in the reserve and there are rock climbing routes on Muizenberg Peak. The Silvermine river, which starts in the reserve and runs to Clovelly, is the only river in the Cape Peninsula that runs its whole course without going through a developed area
Mountain Zebra National Park
Mountain Zebra National Park is a national park in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa proclaimed in July 1937 for the purpose of providing a nature reserve for the endangered Cape mountain zebra.
The Johannesburg Zoo is a 55-hectare zoo in Johannesburg, South Africa. The zoo is dedicated to the accommodation, enrichment, husbandry, and medical care of wild animals, and houses about 2000 individuals of 320 species. Established in 1904, it has traditionally been owned and operated by the Johannesburg City Council. However, it has been turned into a corporation and registered as a Section 21 non-profit organisation.
White-sand beach for swimming & basking
The Lisbon Falls are falls in the Lisbon Creek, a right bank tributary of the Blyde River. They are situated a short distance north of Graskop beside the R532 road, and are the highest waterfalls in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The waterfalls are 94 metres high and were named for the capital city of Portugal. Located close to God’s Window, they are however just outside the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, as several others like the Berlin Falls, Lone Creek and Mac-Mac Falls. The falls are situated along the Panorama Route
Rhodes Memorial on Devil’s Peak in Cape Town, South Africa, is a memorial to English-born, South African politician Cecil John Rhodes. The memorial was designed by the renowned architect, Sir Herbert Baker.
World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary & Monkey Park
World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary and Monkey Park is an avian, reptilian and wildlife sanctuary in Hout Bay, a suburb of Cape Town in South Africa. As suggested by its name, the focus is primarily on birds and monkeys. It is the largest African bird park and among the bird parks in the world with the higher number of species.
Birds of Eden
Birds of Eden is the world’s largest free flight aviary and bird sanctuary, located in Kurland village near Plettenberg Bay in the Western Cape, South Africa. The mesh dome of the sanctuary was built over 2.3 hectares of indigenous forest, and is up to 55 metres above ground level. 1.2 kilometres of walkways, about 75% of which are elevated, let visitors see the birds at all levels of the aviary. Birds of Eden is one of the four Sanctuaries under The South African Animal Sanctuary Alliance. As a member of SAASA Birds of Eden was honoured with four major tourism awards in 2014. The four awards are namely the Lilizela Tourism Visitor Experience of the Year Award at a ‘Wildlife Encounters’, the Skål International Sustainable Tourism Award, Overall winner of the World Responsible Tourism Award as well as the Gold Award in World Responsible Tourism in the category of ‘Best Animal Welfare Initiative’
Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa
The Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa is a contemporary art museum located at the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town, South Africa. It is the largest museum of contemporary African art in the world. The museum opened on September 22, 2017
Cape Town Diamond Museum
Exhibits on diamond science & history
Vergelegen Wine Estate
Vergelegen is a historic wine estate in Somerset West, in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Namaqua National Park
Namaqua National Park is a South African national park situated approximately 495 km north of Cape Town and 22 km northwest of Kamieskroon. It has an area of more than 1300 km². The park is part of Namaqualand, an area covering 55,000 km² located within the semi-desert Succulent Karoo biome. This biome is a biodiversity hotspot with the largest concentration of succulent plants in the world. The park also has an arid environment with succulent plants. The park was created to protect its flowers. During the spring, wildflowers bloom there in a spectacular fashion. The park’s main tourist attraction is this abundant spring bloom of brightly coloured wildflowers.
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