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List of universities in Madagascar. Prior to the 19th century, all education in Madagascar was informal and typically served to teach practical skills as well as social and cultural values, including respect for ancestors and elders. The first formal European-style school was established in 1818 at Toamasina by members of the London Missionary Society (LMS). The LMS was invited by King Radama I to expand its schools throughout Imerina to teach basic literacy and numeracy to aristocratic children. The schools were closed by Ranavalona I in 1835, but reopened and expanded in the decades after her death.
By the end of the 19th century, Madagascar had the most developed and modern school system in pre-colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Access to schooling was expanded in coastal areas during the colonial period, with French language and basic work skills becoming the focus of the curriculum. During the post-colonial First Republic, a continued reliance on French nationals as teachers, and French as the language of instruction, displeased those desiring a complete separation from the former colonial power. Consequently, under the socialist Second Republic, French instructors and other nationals were expelled, Malagasy was declared the language of instruction, and a large cadre of young Malagasy were rapidly trained to teach at remote rural schools under the mandatory two-year national service policy.
This policy, known as malgachization, coincided with a severe economic downturn and a dramatic decline in the quality of education. Those schooled during this period generally failed to master the French language or many other subjects and struggled to find employment, forcing many to take low-paying jobs in the informal or black market that mired them in deepening poverty. Excepting the brief presidency of Albert Zafy, from 1992 to 1996, Ratsiraka remained in power from 1975 to 2001 and failed to achieve significant improvements in education throughout his tenure.
Education was prioritized under the Ravalomanana administration (2002–09), and is currently free and compulsory from ages 6 to 13. The primary schooling cycle is five years, followed by four years at the lower secondary level and three years at the upper secondary level. During Ravalomanana’s first term, thousands of new primary schools and additional classrooms were constructed, older buildings were renovated, and tens of thousands of new primary teachers were recruited and trained. Primary school fees were eliminated, and kits containing basic school supplies were distributed to primary students.
Government school construction initiatives have ensured at least one primary school per fokontany and one lower secondary school within each commune. At least one upper secondary school is located in each of the larger urban centers. The three branches of the national public university are located at Antananarivo, Mahajanga, and Fianarantsoa. These are complemented by public teacher-training colleges and several private universities and technical colleges.
As a result of increased educational access, enrollment rates more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. However, education quality is weak, producing high rates of grade repetition and dropout. Education policy in Ravalomanana’s second term focused on quality issues, including an increase in minimum education standards for the recruitment of primary teachers from a middle school leaving certificate (BEPC) to a high school leaving certificate (BAC), and a reformed teacher training program to support the transition from traditional didactic instruction to student-centered teaching methods to boost student learning and participation in the classroom. Public expenditure on education was 2.8 percent of GDP in 2014. The literacy rate is estimated at 64.7%
Madagascar’s higher education sector includes a number of colleges and universities. The universities and colleges in Madagascar provide higher education to the interested students of the island. The universities and colleges in Madagascar hold an important place in the educational system of Madagascar.
List of Notable universities in Madagascar
École Supérieure de Comptabilités, d’Administration et de Management d’Entreprise
La Grande Ecole supérieure en pleine émergence en Afrique », telle est une qualification pour l’ESCAME en ce moment. Créée en 1997, elle est dédiée pour former des futurs créateurs et dirigeants d’entreprises nationales et internationales. l’ESCAME est toujours classée parmi les Top 5 des grandes écoles supérieures à Madagascar. Il est également à noter que tous les diplômes délivrés par l’ESCAME sont en bonne situation avec l’Etat. View École Supérieure de Comptabilités, d’Administration et de Management d’Entreprise website
University of Antsiranana
Founded in 1976, the University of Antsiranana is Currently Attended by Nearly 3000 students divided into two schools , three faculties and one institute. By linking people and skills, practices and ideas, resources and projects the university prepares its students with conviction to achieve their ambition and successful integration with the world of employment and society of tomorrow. View the University of Antsiranana website
Universit de Toamasina
The University of Toamasina (Université de Tamatave) is a public university in Madagascar, in the city of Toamasina. The university was formerly part of the University of Madagascar system, along with public universities in Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara and Fianarantsoa. In 1988 that system was reorganized and the member schools became separate institutions. View Universit de Toamasina website
institut Supérieur de Technologie d’Antananarivo
L’Institut supérieur de Technologie d’Antananarivo est un établissement d’enseignement supérieur et de recherche rattaché au Ministère en charge de ce domaine. A l’instar de ses premiers vingt cinq ans, compte sur les valeurs qui ont forgé sa crédibilité et sa réputation : technicité et compétence, discipline et rigueur, bonnes relations humaines. View the Institut Supérieur de Technologie d’Antananarivo website
The Higher Polytechnic Institute of Madagascar
The Higher Polytechnic Institute of Madagascar was the first private Polytechnic Institute in Madagascar and was born in January 1993 in Antananarivo. At its creation in 1993 , it was first called School Science and Information Technologies in Madagascar with only one department concerned with the Electronics industry , Information Systems and Artificial Intelligence and the Computer Science industry , Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence. Other industries since then have been set up in succession. View the Higher Polytechnic Institute of Madagascar website
The Sacred Heart School Antanimena
The Sacred Heart School Antanimena opened in October 1992 one of the first private tertiary institutes based in Madagascar where the primary objective is to contribute to the training of graduates who intend to follow including vocational higher education. As a Catholic school, educators and teachers have the role to give the individual an integral training for his eternal destiny, to help prepare people to be both free and responsible, to help youth give meaning to their lives , to help young people build their future and to ensure human promotion of youth and their academic success. View the Sacred Heart School Antanimena website
University of Antananarivo
The University of Antananarivo is convinced that young people today hold the energy and dynamism, intelligence and will, the intellectual and moral capacities to promote better if a new civilization society. The University of Antananarivo has the following faculties:
Institut National de Santé Publique et Communautaire
The Institut National de Santé Publique et Communautaire specialises in Public Health in Madagascar was created in 1994. The medical graduates of the State were admitted by competition there.A Certificate of Public Health Studies (CES) is awarded after four years of study. The INSPC is an institute for training and research working in the field of public health in Madagascar. It is under the Ministry of Public Health, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. View the INSPC website
Faculty of Social Sciences
The Faculty of Social Sciences is part of the Private Higher Education in Madagascar. However, ethical reflection and training of the person as a Christian faith in the context of the needs of the Malagasy nation is a major concern of the Faculty of Social Sciences. It is an institution of higher education that provides initial training of four (4) years after the Baccalaureate, leading to the Master . View the Faculty of Social Sciences website
This is a list of universities in Madagascar
Arsenal Higher Polytechnic Institute
Catholic University of Madagascar
Higher Institute of Communication, Business, and Management of Madagascar
Higher Institute of Technology of Antananarivo
Higher Institute of Theology and Philosophy of Madagascar
Higher Polytechnic Institute of Madagascar
Higher Vocational Agricultural School of Bevalala
Madagascar Institute of Political Studies
National Institute of Public Health
Reformed University of Madagascar
University of Antananarivo
University of Antsiranana or University of North Madagascar
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