The Hiraab Imamate (Somali: Saldanadda Hiraab) also known as the Yacquubi Dynasty was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late 17th century and 19th century until it was incorporated into Italian Somaliland. The Imamate was governed by the Yacquub Dynasty. It was founded by Imam Omar who successfully rebelled and defeated the Ajuran and established an independent kingdom.
The Hiraab Imamate was the successor state of Ajuran Sultanate. The reason for their rebellion was the Ajuran rulers, in the end, became extremely prideful, neglected the sharia, and imposed a heavy taxation on their subjects which was the main reason for the rebellion.
The first clan to ever challenge the Ajuuraan rulers was the Darandoolle clan a section of Hiraab.
The Ajuuraan had decreed: “At the wells in our territory, the people known as Darandoolle and the other Hiraab cannot water their herds by day, but only at night.” … Then all the Darandoolle gathered in one place. The leaders decided to make war on the Ajuuraan. They found the imam of the Ajuuraan seated on a rock near a well called Ceel Cawl. They killed him with a sword. As they struck him with the sword, they split his body together with the rock on which he was seated. He died immediately and the Ajuuraan migrated out of the country. In another variation of the story, a young Darandoolle warrior was born with a gold ring on his finger, a sign of his future preeminence. The Darandoolle then rallied around their young leader, who eventually assumed the title of imam of the Hiraab and took up residence in Muqdisho).
After the successful rebellion of the Darandoolle, other clans began to challenge Ajuuraan hegemony. Along the upper and middle reaches of the Shabelle valley, the pastoral Gaaljecel and Xawaadle waged several unsuccessful campaigns before they eventually united to drive the Ajuuraan out of the area. The Habar Gidir also drove the Ajuuraan out of Galgaduud and Mudug provinces after a hard-fought battle.
By 1700, clans of Hawiye occupied a large territory stretching the interior from the Shabelle valley to the arid lands of Mudug and coastal areas of Mogadishu all the way to Hobyo. After the immediate fall of the Ajuuraan, the Hiraab established an independent rule for at least two centuries.
One of its first tests of strength was to defend Mogadishu in 1701 against a European incursion which saw seven ships dock at a nearby harbour and stayed for 11 days. They had planned to take the city but they were successfully repulsed. The quarters of Hamarweyn and Shingani united in the face of this threat. This was reported by Sharif Aydurus in his 20th-century book the Bughyat Al-Amal Fi Tarikh Al-Sumal.