Prior to independence from French West Africa, the flag of Niger was adopted by the Territorial Assembly of the Niger Colony on 23 November 1959, shortly before proclamation of the Republic within the French Community on 18 December 1959. The flag was designed in 1958. It was retained upon independence in 1960 and has remained unchanged through the 1999 Fifth Constitution
A number of sources have described the symbolic intent of the flag, although official sources have yet to make comment on the validity of any of the aforementioned sources. A common interpretation is that the upper orange band represents the northern regions of the Sahara Desert (though this is sometimes said to be the Sahel), the center white band represents purity (though this is sometimes said to be the Niger River) and also represents the French-descended small white minority, and the lower green band represents both hope and the fertile regions of southern Niger. The orange circle in the center band is said to represent the sun or independence.
Niger’s flag is a tricolour, in common with other former dependencies and colonies of France.