The Egyptian flag is a horizontal tricolour with an emblem in the middle. The used colors in the flag are red, yellow, white, black. The proportion of the Egyptian flag is 2:3. The Flag of Egypt was adopted in 1984. The first use of the current flag design was in 1953. The last change to the current Egyptian flag design was in 1984.
The flag of Egypt (علم مصر [ˈʕælæm mɑsˤɾ]) is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands based on the Arab Liberation Flag of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. In the centre of the middle band, the flag bears the Eagle of Saladin, the national symbol of Egypt since 1952, and an emblem of Arab nationalism that also serves as the national symbol of Iraq, Palestine, and Yemen, and previously of the United Arab Republic, North Yemen, South Yemen, and the Libyan Arab Republic.
Since the toppling of the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan in the revolution of 1952, all four iterations of the Egyptian flag have had the same fundamental horizontal red-white-black design of the Arab Liberation Flag, with the only difference being the appearance of the eagle in the middle band of white, and the presence or absence of the colour green in that same band. In the original Arab Liberation Flag, all four of the Pan-Arab Colours of black, white, red, and green were present, representing the original four caliphates of the Arab World (Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, and Fatimad), with the green included via the flag of the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan being emblazoned on the breast of the Eagle of Saladin. During Egypt’s time as part of the United Arab Republic, the eagle, whilst still being used as the national symbol, was replaced in the middle band by two green stars representing the members of the union, namely Egypt, and Syria. The third iteration of the flag came via Egypt’s membership of the Federation of Arab Republics, with the two green stars on Egypt’s flag being replaced by the Hawk of Quraish. The flag was modified most recently in 1984, when the Eagle of Saladin was restored to the middle band in place of the Hawk of Quraish, however, the colour green was not similarly restored. As such, unlike the flags of Iraq, Syria, and Sudan, all of which were likewise derived from the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the current flag of Egypt lacks one of the four essential colours of the Arab Liberation Flag.
The Egyptian Free Officers who toppled King Farouk in the Revolution of 1952 assigned specific symbolism to each of the three bands of the revolutionary and liberation flag. The red band symbolizes the Egyptians’ blood in the war against colonization. The white band symbolizes the purity of the Egyptian’s heart. The black band below the white, symbolizes the manner in which darkness is overcome.
Egypt’s Revolutionary and Liberation flag was then an inspiration to several Arab countries and was adopted by many Arab states. The same horizontal tricolour is used by Iraq, Syria, Sudan, and Yemen (and formerly Libya), the only difference being the presence (or absence) of distinguishing national emblems in the white band.
The development of the modern Egyptian flag was determined first by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, under whom Egypt was united with Sudan, and later by the rise of Egyptian nationalism and revolutionary ideas among the Egyptian Army.